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《新時代的中國能源發展》白皮書(9)(中英對照)

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VI. Deeper Reform of the Energy System in All Areas

六、全面深化能源體制改革

China will fully leverage the decisive role of the market in allocating energy resources, and ensure the government better play its part in this regard. It will extend market-oriented reform in key areas and on vital issues to remove institutional barriers, solve the problem of an incomplete market system, provide strong institutional guarantees for China's energy security and boost the high-quality development of the energy sector.

充分發揮市場在能源資源配置中的決定性作用,更好發揮政府作用,深化重點領域和關鍵環節市場化改革,破除妨礙發展的體制機制障礙,着力解決市場體系不完善等問題,為維護國家能源安全、推進能源高質量發展提供製度保障。

1. Creating an Energy Market with Effective Competition

(一)構建有效競爭的能源市場

China is working hard to cultivate a variety of market entities, break up monopolies, ease market access, and encourage competition. It is building an energy market system that is unified, open, competitive and yet orderly, removing market barriers, and making the allocation of energy resources more efficient and fairer.

大力培育多元市場主體,打破壟斷、放寬准入、鼓勵競爭,構建統一開放、競爭有序的能源市場體系,着力清除市場壁壘,提高能源資源配置效率和公平性。

Diversifying market entities. China supports a variety of market entities to operate in segments of the energy sector that are not on the entry negative list, in accordance with the law and on equal footing. China has extended systemic reform of oil and gas exploration and exploitation and opened up the market in this regard. It has implemented competitive trading of oil and gas exploration blocks, and adopted a more rigorous exit mechanism for oil- and gas-bearing zones. China encourages qualified enterprises to import crude oil. It has reformed the oil and gas pipeline operation system to separate transport from sales. In an effort to reform electricity distribution, China is opening up electricity distribution and sales to non-government investment in an orderly manner, and is separating power grid enterprises' secondary business from their core business. New market entities are being cultivated in the fields of electricity distribution and sales, energy storage, and comprehensive energy services. Meanwhile, China is extending reform of energy SOEs, supporting development of the non-public sector, and conducting active yet prudent mixed-ownership reform in the energy industry to boost the vitality and motivation of energy enterprises.

培育多元能源市場主體。支持各類市場主體依法平等進入負面清單以外的能源領域,形成多元市場主體共同參與的格局。深化油氣勘查開採體制改革,開放油氣勘查開採市場,實行勘查區塊競爭出讓和更加嚴格的區塊退出機制。支持符合條件的企業進口原油。改革油氣管網運營機制,實現管輸和銷售業務分離。穩步推進售電側改革,有序向社會資本開放配售電業務,深化電網企業主輔分離。積極培育配售電、儲能、綜合能源服務等新興市場主體。深化國有能源企業改革,支持非公有制發展,積極穩妥開展能源領域混合所有制改革,激發企業活力動力。

Building an energy market system that is unified, open, and competitive yet orderly. China has established trading platforms for coal, electricity, petroleum and natural gas to facilitate interaction between demand and supply. A modern coal market system is under construction. Futures trading of thermal coal, coking coal and crude oil and spot trading of natural gas are under way. Restrictions have been lifted on the generation and consumption of electricity by commercial consumers. An electricity market is under way to incorporate medium- and long-term trading, spot trading and other forms of trading of electricity. China is also working to build a unified electricity market across the country and a national carbon emissions trading market.

建設統一開放、競爭有序的能源市場體系。根據不同能源品種特點,搭建煤炭、電力、石油和天然氣交易平台,促進供需互動。推動建設現代化煤炭市場體系,發展動力煤、煉焦煤、原油期貨交易和天然氣現貨交易。全面放開經營性電力用户發用電計劃,建設中長期交易、現貨交易等電能量交易和輔助服務交易相結合的電力市場。積極推進全國統一電力市場和全國碳排放權交易市場建設。

2. Improving the Market-Based Mechanism for Deciding Energy Prices

(二)完善主要由市場決定能源價格的機制

Following the principle of "allowing for more competition in electricity generation, sales and consumption while tightening government regulation of power grid, transmission and distribution", China has lifted price control over competitive areas and links. The goal is to allow prices to reflect market demand, and thereby guide the allocation of resources. It has also conducted strict government oversight of the determination of pricing to cover reasonable costs.

按照“管住中間、放開兩頭”總體思路,穩步放開競爭性領域和競爭性環節價格,促進價格反映市場供求、引導資源配置;嚴格政府定價成本監審,推進科學合理定價。

Lifting price control over competitive links in an orderly manner. China is steadily fostering a market-based pricing mechanism of commercial electricity generation and distribution, and allowing prices to be decided by electricity users, sellers and producers through market-based modalities. China has extended reform of the price-setting mechanism for on-grid electricity from coal-fired power plants, and introduced a market-based pricing mechanism in which electricity prices may fluctuate above or below the benchmark. Steady progress has been made in determining the price of on-grid electricity from new wind and solar PV power plants through competitive bidding. Relevant parties are encouraged to negotiate on the basis of sharing risks and benefits, and set through market-based modalities the price for trans-provincial or trans-regional transmission of electricity. The pricing mechanism for oil products is being improved. Reform is ongoing in having the market determine gas prices. China has enforced progressive pricing for household consumption of electricity and gas across the nation, ensuring basic living needs are met while encouraging conservation.

有序放開競爭性環節價格。推動分步實現公益性以外的發售電價格由市場形成,電力用户或售電主體可與發電企業通過市場化方式確定交易價格。進一步深化燃煤發電上網電價機制改革,實行“基準價+上下浮動”的市場化價格機制。穩步推進以競爭性招標方式確定新建風電、光伏發電項目上網電價。推動按照“風險共擔、利益共享”原則協商或通過市場化方式形成跨省跨區送電價格。完善成品油價格形成機制,推進天然氣價格市場化改革。堅持保基本、促節約原則,全面推行居民階梯電價、階梯氣價制度。

Appropriately deciding prices for natural monopoly operations. Allowing recovery of costs plus reasonable profits, China has set appropriate transmission and distribution prices for power grids and gas pipelines. It has analyzed costs and verified prices for electricity transmission and distribution over two regulatory periods. China has also stepped up the price regulation of gas transmission and distribution and analyzed gas costs in order to establish a price regulation system that covers the whole process of gas transmission and distribution.

科學核定自然壟斷環節價格。按照“准許成本+合理收益”原則,合理制定電網、天然氣管網輸配價格。開展兩個監管週期輸配電定價成本監審和電價核定。強化輸配氣價格監管,開展成本監審,構建天然氣輸配領域全環節價格監管體系。

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decisive [di'saisiv]

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adj. 決定性的

 
control [kən'trəul]

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n. 剋制,控制,管制,操作裝置
vt. 控制

 
strict [strikt]

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adj. 嚴格的,精確的,完全的

 
extend [iks'tend]

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v. 擴充,延伸,伸展,擴展

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rigorous ['rigərəs]

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adj. 嚴厲的,嚴酷的,嚴格的,細緻的

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reform [ri'fɔ:m]

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v. 改革,改造,革新
n. 改革,改良

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fluctuate ['flʌktjueit]

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vi. 變動,上下,動搖
vt. 使動搖

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supply [sə'plai]

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n. 補給,供給,供應,貯備
vt. 補給,供

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encourage [in'kʌridʒ]

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vt. 鼓勵,促進,支持

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reflect [ri'flekt]

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v. 反映,反射,歸咎

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